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  • Rate of Beta-Lactam Resistance and Epidemiological Features of S. Aureus-Associated Bovine Mastitis in Cross-Bred Ethiopian Cows: Systematic Review

    Vet Med (Auckl). 2024 Feb 27;15:39-55. doi: 10.2147/VMRR.S415339. eCollection 2024.

    ABSTRACT

    BACKGROUND: Dairy cows get mastitis from a common infection called Staphylococcus aureus. Because of its broad distribution across diverse populations and capacity to acquire antibiotic resistance, this particular bacterial strain presents a serious threat to public health. The main goals of this study were to determine the beta-lactam resistance profile of S. aureus in Ethiopian dairy cows and to offer thorough epidemiological data.

    METHODS: We employed manual searches, Web of Science, PubMed Central, and Google Scholar HINARI for electronic bibliographic data.

    RESULTS: Twenty-six epidemiological studies were included in this systematic review. Of these studies, 12 articles in Oromia, 4 articles in Addis Ababa, 4 articles in Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s (SNNPRS), 3 articles in Tigray, and 3 articles in Amhara region. The average prevalence S. aureus were 34.3% in Oromia, 40.2% in Amhara, 39.5 in AA, 40% in Tigray and 21% in SNNPRS. The antimicrobial resistance rate of S. aureus, specifically in relation to beta-lactam drugs, exhibited an average estimation. Notably, penicillin resistance reached a rate of 75%, while amoxicillin resistance stood at 67%. Furthermore, it was determined that, when treating S. aureus, the resistance rates to ampicillin and cephalosporin were 50% and 57%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this analysis have demonstrated a considerable rise in S. aureus prevalence and beta-lactam resistance within the Ethiopian geographic environment. This emphasizes the critical need for alternate therapeutic approaches and preventative measures in order to successfully lessen the disease’s extensive spread and detrimental effects across the nation.

    PMID:38433734 | PMC:PMC10908337 | DOI:10.2147/VMRR.S415339

  • The role of endoscopy in bovine internal medicine – a review of current indication fields

    Vet J. 2024 Mar 1:106093. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2024.106093. Online ahead of print.

    ABSTRACT

    Endoscopy in bovine internal medicine has come a long way from the first profound research papers in the 1980s to its present-day use. This paper reviews the progress in the 2000s and identifies the main application fields for diagnostic and therapeutic use. Inclusion criteria for scientific papers and reports encompassed focus on endoscopic examination techniques in cattle in the field of internal medicine and publication in a peer reviewed journal (case report/review/original research paper/short communication). Only papers written in English or German language were considered. Studies on laparoscopy, theloscopy, and bronchoscopy show that endoscopic approaches often enable more rapid and accurate diagnosis and treatment options for single diseased animals as well as on a herd level. Oesophagoscopy, rumenoscopy, cystoscopy and thoracoscopy have also been increasingly studied and proven to be safe and effective tools with some limitations in diagnosing and/or treating various diseases in cattle. Scientific approaches explored the epidural space in cattle and comparison of different endoscope systems lead to recommendations for sinuscopy. Yet, this narrative literature review clearly shows that unlike in human medicine, where endoscopy as a minimally invasive technique is used for countless routine procedures every day, there is still some catching up to do in bovine medicine even though the potential of endoscopy in this field has been documented.

    PMID:38432456 | DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2024.106093

  • Automated dairy cattle lameness detection utilizing the power of artificial intelligence; current status quo and future research opportunities

    Vet J. 2024 Feb 29:106091. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2024.106091. Online ahead of print.

    ABSTRACT

    Lameness represents a major welfare and health problem for the dairy industry across all farming systems. Visual mobility scoring, although very useful, is labour-intensive and physically demanding, especially in large dairies, often leading to inconsistencies and inadequate uptake of the practice. Technological and computational advancements of artificial intelligence (AI) have led to the development of numerous automated solutions for livestock monitoring. The objective of this study was to review the automated systems using AI algorithms for lameness detection developed to-date. These systems rely on gait analysis using accelerometers, weighing platforms, acoustic analysis, radar sensors and computer vision technology. The lameness features of interest, the AI techniques used to process the data as well as the ground truth of lameness selected in each case are described. Measures of accuracy regarding correct classification of cows as lame or non-lame varied with most systems being able to classify cows with adequate reliability. Most studies used visual mobility scoring as the ground truth for comparison with only a few studies using the presence of specific foot pathologies. Given the capabilities of AI, and the benefits of early treatment of lameness, longitudinal studies to identify gait abnormalities using automated scores related to the early developmental stages of different foot pathologies are required. Farm-specific optimal thresholds for early intervention should then be identified to ameliorate cow health and welfare but also minimise unnecessary inspections.

    PMID:38431128 | DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2024.106091

  • The role of genetic variability of the host on the resistance to Neospora caninum infection in cattle

    Anim Genet. 2024 Feb 28. doi: 10.1111/age.13410. Online ahead of print.

    ABSTRACT

    Neospora caninum is one of the most frequently diagnosed abortifacient pathogens in cattle. There is abundant genomic information about the parasite itself, but very little is known about the genetic variability of resistance in the most common intermediate host. The aim of this review was to compile all the available information about the genetic variability associated with the resistance to N. caninum both between and within cattle breeds. We systematically searched for published studies that investigated the influence of genetics of the host on the prevalence of N. caninum and risk of abortion. Beyond the potential confounding effects of feeding systems, management and animal density, some lines of evidence suggest that Holstein, the most popular breed for milk production, has a comparatively higher risk of abortion due to infections by N. caninum, whereas some beef breeds from Continental Europe seem to be more resistant. It is still not clear if different genetic mechanisms of resistance are involved in the two known routes of infection: postnatal ingestion of oocysts or transplacental transmission from the infected dam to the fetus. Genomic information associated with susceptibility to infection and risk of abortion in different cattle breeds is still scarce. The information reported here could be useful to identify new research alternatives and to define novel strategies to deal with this major problem of animal production.

    PMID:38419150 | DOI:10.1111/age.13410

  • Research progress on the mechanism of probiotics regulating cow milk allergy in early childhood and its application in hypoallergenic infant formula

    Front Nutr. 2024 Feb 14;11:1254979. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2024.1254979. eCollection 2024.

    ABSTRACT

    Some infants and young children suffer from cow’s milk allergy (CMA), and have always mainly used hypoallergenic infant formula as a substitute for breast milk, but some of these formulas can still cause allergic reactions. In recent years, it has been found that probiotic nutritional interventions can regulate CMA in children. Scientific and reasonable application of probiotics to hypoallergenic infant formula is the key research direction in the future. This paper discusses the mechanism and clinical symptoms of CMA in children. This review critically ex- amines the issue of how probiotics use intestinal flora as the main vector to combine with the immune system to exert physiological functions to intervene CMA in children, with a particular focus on four mechanisms: promoting the early establishment of intestinal microecological balance, regulating the body’s immunity and alleviating allergic response, enhancing the intestinal mucosal barrier function, and destroying allergen epitopes. Additionally, it overviews the development process of hypoallergenic infant formula and the research progress of probiotics in hypoallergenic infant formula. The article also offers suggestions and outlines potential future research directions and ideas in this field.

    PMID:38419849 | PMC:PMC10900986 | DOI:10.3389/fnut.2024.1254979

  • Confronting the complexities of antimicrobial management for Staphyloccous aureus causing bovine mastitis: an innovative paradigm

    Ir Vet J. 2024 Feb 28;77(1):4. doi: 10.1186/s13620-024-00264-1.

    ABSTRACT

    Globally, Mastitis is a disease commonly affecting dairy cattle which leads to the use of antimicrobials. The majority of mastitis etiological agents are bacterial pathogens and Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant causative agent. Antimicrobial treatment is administered mainly via intramammary and intramuscular routes. Due to increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) often associated with antimicrobial misuse, the treatment of mastitis is becoming challenging with less alternative treatment options. Besides, biofilms formation and ability of mastitis-causing bacteria to enter and adhere within the cells of the mammary epithelium complicate the treatment of bovine mastitis. In this review article, we address the challenges in treating mastitis through conventional antibiotic treatment because of the rising AMR, biofilms formation, and the intracellular survival of bacteria. This review article describes different alternative treatments including phytochemical compounds, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), phage therapy, and Graphene Nanomaterial-Based Therapy that can potentially be further developed to complement existing antimicrobial therapy and overcome the growing threat of AMR in etiologies of mastitis.

    PMID:38418988 | PMC:PMC10900600 | DOI:10.1186/s13620-024-00264-1

  • The effect of bovine dairy products and their components on the incidence and natural history of infection: a systematic literature review

    Nutr J. 2024 Feb 27;23(1):26. doi: 10.1186/s12937-024-00923-7.

    ABSTRACT

    BACKGROUND: Dairy products and their components may impact immune function, although the current evidence base has some research gaps. As part of a larger systematic literature review of dairy products/components (including probiotics, dairy proteins, and dairy fats) and immune function, we identified the available epidemiologic research on the impact of dairy products/components on incidence and natural history of infectious diseases.

    METHODS: PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched through May 2022 to identify eligible studies using pre-defined Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes, and Study design criteria. Herein, we focused on describing the impacts of dairy product/component on infectious disease outcomes, including the effect on leukocyte and cytokine response in humans. Risk of bias assessment was performed using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Criteria Checklist. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed.

    RESULTS: Among 9,832 studies identified from the larger literature search, 133 relevant publications from 128 studies reported on dairy product/component and infectious disease outcomes. Few studies are available on the impact of non-fermented milk and traditional yogurt on infectious disease. Evidence was identified to suggest milk and yogurt drinks fermented with Lactobacillus strains reduce the risk and burden of common infectious diseases (CIDs), although the findings are mixed and difficult to reconcile due to heterogenous study populations, bacterial strains, and study methods. Few studies are available on the impact of dairy products/components on the natural history of infection, with the available findings indicating probiotics may both improve gastrointestinal symptoms among HIV-infected persons and help eradicate and alleviate the symptoms of Heliobacter (H.) pylori. The available evidence also suggests lactoferrin may reduce the virological burden of COVID-19 and hepatitis C virus. No consistent changes in leukocytes or cytokine production were observed for any type of dairy product or their components, but probiotics appeared to enhance natural killer cell levels/activity and the phagocytic process.

    CONCLUSIONS: Dairy products, particularly those with added probiotics, may represent an easily accessible nutritional intervention to prevent and improve the course of infectious diseases. This review highlights the need for additional research in this potentially impactful area.

    PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42022333780.

    PMID:38413931 | PMC:PMC10898086 | DOI:10.1186/s12937-024-00923-7

  • A Review of Potential Feed Additives Intended for Carbon Footprint Reduction through Methane Abatement in Dairy Cattle

    Animals (Basel). 2024 Feb 8;14(4):568. doi: 10.3390/ani14040568.

    ABSTRACT

    Eight rumen additives were chosen for an enteric methane-mitigating comparison study including garlic oil (GO), nitrate, Ascophyllum nodosum (AN), Asparagopsis (ASP), Lactobacillus plantarum (LAB), chitosan (CHI), essential oils (EOs) and 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP). Dose-dependent analysis was carried out on selected feed additives using a meta-analysis approach to determine effectiveness in live subjects or potential efficacy in live animal trials with particular attention given to enteric gas, volatile fatty acid concentrations, and rumen microbial counts. All meta-analysis involving additives GO, nitrates, LAB, CHI, EOs, and 3-NOP revealed a reduction in methane production, while individual studies for AN and ASP displayed ruminal bacterial community improvement and a reduction in enteric CH4. Rumen protozoal depression was observed with GO and AN supplementation as well as an increase in propionate production with GO, LAB, ASP, CHI, and 3-NOP rumen fluid inoculation. GO, AN, ASP, and LAB demonstrated mechanisms in vitro as feed additives to improve rumen function and act as enteric methane mitigators. Enzyme inhibitor 3-NOP displays the greatest in vivo CH4 mitigating capabilities compared to essential oil commercial products. Furthermore, this meta-analysis study revealed that in vitro studies in general displayed a greater level of methane mitigation with these compounds than was seen in vivo, emphasising the importance of in vivo trials for final verification of use. While in vitro gas production systems predict in vivo methane production and fermentation trends with reasonable accuracy, it is necessary to confirm feed additive rumen influence in vivo before practical application.

    PMID:38396536 | PMC:PMC10885959 | DOI:10.3390/ani14040568

  • Strategies for Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) Diagnosis and Prognosis: A Comprehensive Overview

    Animals (Basel). 2024 Feb 16;14(4):627. doi: 10.3390/ani14040627.

    ABSTRACT

    Despite significant advances in vaccination strategies and antibiotic therapy, bovine respiratory disease (BRD) continues to be the leading disease affecting the global cattle industry. The etiology of BRD is complex, often involving multiple microbial agents, which lead to intricate interactions between the host immune system and pathogens during various beef production stages. These interactions present environmental, social, and geographical challenges. Accurate diagnosis is essential for effective disease management. Nevertheless, correct identification of BRD cases remains a daunting challenge for animal health technicians in feedlots. In response to current regulations, there is a growing interest in refining clinical diagnoses of BRD to curb the overuse of antimicrobials. This shift marks a pivotal first step toward establishing a structured diagnostic framework for this disease. This review article provides an update on recent developments and future perspectives in clinical diagnostics and prognostic techniques for BRD, assessing their benefits and limitations. The methods discussed include the evaluation of clinical signs and animal behavior, biomarker analysis, molecular diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, and prognostic modeling. While some techniques show promise as standalone diagnostics, it is likely that a multifaceted approach-leveraging a combination of these methods-will yield the most accurate diagnosis of BRD.

    PMID:38396598 | PMC:PMC10885951 | DOI:10.3390/ani14040627

  • Late History of Cattle Breeds in Central Europe in Light of Genetic and Archaeogenetic Sources-Overview, Thoughts, and Perspectives

    Animals (Basel). 2024 Feb 17;14(4):645. doi: 10.3390/ani14040645.

    ABSTRACT

    Although Europe was not a primary centre of cattle domestication, its expansion from the Middle East and subsequent development created a complex pattern of cattle breed diversity. Many isolated populations of local historical breeds still carry the message about the physical and genetic traits of ancient populations. Since the way of life of human communities starting from the eleventh millennium BP was strongly determined by livestock husbandry, the knowledge of cattle diversity through the ages is helpful in the interpretation of many archaeological findings. Historical cattle diversity is currently at the intersection of two leading directions of genetic research. Firstly, it is archaeogenetics attempting to recover and interpret the preserved genetic information directly from archaeological finds. The advanced archaeogenetic approaches meet with the population genomics of extant cattle populations. The immense amount of genetic information collected from living cattle, due to its key economic role, allows for reconstructing the genetic profiles of the ancient populations backwards. The present paper aims to place selected archaeogenetic, genetic, and genomic findings in the picture of cattle history in Central Europe, as suggested by archaeozoological and historical records. Perspectives of the methodical connection between the genetic approaches and the approaches of traditional archaeozoology, such as osteomorphology and osteometry, are discussed. The importance, actuality, and effectiveness of combining different approaches to each archaeological find, such as morphological characterization, interpretation of the historical context, and molecular data, are stressed.

    PMID:38396613 | PMC:PMC10886113 | DOI:10.3390/ani14040645