最新論文抄録


  • Age at first calving and productive performance of primiparous Holsteins

    J Dairy Res. 2023 Nov;90(4):353-356. doi: 10.1017/S0022029923000729. Epub 2024 Feb 29.

    ABSTRACT

    This study investigated the age at first calving in Holstein heifers and its impact on various production parameters. A sample of 737 Holstein heifers born between 2015 and 2018 and finishing their first lactations between 2018 and 2020 was included. Cluster analysis revealed three groups based on age at first calving: high precocity, medium precocity and low precocity. Medium-precocity group exhibited the highest 305-day milk yield and peak milk production. Additionally, the same group demonstrated superior mean production per lactation, 305-day milk protein content, and 305-day milk yield. The lowest somatic cell count was found in the low-precocity group. In conclusion, medium-precocity cows showed better results such as higher 305-day milk yield and peak milk production.

    PMID:38420730 | DOI:10.1017/S0022029923000729

  • Ozone use in the treatment of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows

    J Dairy Res. 2023 Nov;90(4):382-386. doi: 10.1017/S0022029923000808. Epub 2024 Feb 29.

    ABSTRACT

    This research communication paper addresses the hypothesis that the use of therapeutic alternatives for mastitis, such as intramammary ozone, can cure the disease with lower costs and without harmful residues for human consumption and without formation of microbial resistance like the ones caused by indiscriminate use of antibiotics in dairy farms. The study was performed in 36 mammary quarters from 12 dairy cows with subclinical mastitis grade three. The experimental units were randomly assigned into four groups and each group received a treatment. Treatments comprised (a) 20 μg/ml ozone gas; (b) 40 μg/ml ozone gas; (c) negative control treatment of 12.5 μg/ml ozonated saline and (d) positive control treatment of 100 mg of cephalexin + 100 mg of neomycin + 10 mg of prednisolone, all by intramammary injection. In all quarters, milk was collected before and after the application of treatments for California mastitis test and evaluation of milk composition, somatic cell count, and bacterial cultures. The results indicated that the use of intramammary ozone did have a therapeutic effect, and whilst this was less than that of antibiotics, ozone does confer some advantages. Treated milk had a good composition, the treatment cost was low, milk withdrawal may not be necessary and there is no risk of antibiotic resistance.

    PMID:38420731 | DOI:10.1017/S0022029923000808

  • Effect of shortening the dry period on colostrum and milk quality, blood parameters and some reproductive parameters in high-producing Holstein cows of different body condition score

    J Dairy Res. 2023 Nov;90(4):347-352. doi: 10.1017/S0022029923000766. Epub 2024 Feb 29.

    ABSTRACT

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shortening the dry period in high-yielding cows of different body condition scores (BCS). We report colostrum and milk quality, some serum metabolites, BCS changes, and some reproductive parameters with measurements being made over the first two months of lactation. Cows were grouped based on the length of the dry period (normal: about 50 d and short: about 28 d) and BCS (moderate: 2.75 to 3.5 and high ≥ 3.5). Short dry period decreased colostrum volume and, in combination with high BCS only, caused a decrease in milk production. Short dry period moderate BCS cows had the highest serum insulin concentration on day 14 after calving and highest glucose concentration on day 28, but neither differed significantly when measured over the whole period. By contrast, short dry period cows had significantly lower concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate measured over the whole period. Post-partum loss of BCS was less in short and especially so in the short, moderate BCS group. Following a synchronization protocol at 35 d postpartum. The cows with a short dry period and moderate BCS had lower open days, days to first postpartum estrus and services per conception. It was concluded that short dry periods and moderate BCS had a positive influence on serum metabolites, BCS changes and reproductive parameters.

    PMID:38420732 | DOI:10.1017/S0022029923000766

  • Impact of parity number, milk production and somatic cell count on the reproduction of Holstein cows

    J Dairy Res. 2023 Nov;90(4):343-346. doi: 10.1017/S002202992300078X.

    ABSTRACT

    This research communication describes the reproductive and productive parameters and somatic cell count (SCC) of primiparous and multiparous cows from specialized dairy Holstein herds in South region of Brazil, and correlates these parameters using test-day records. A total of 24 011 records of animals from 75 producers obtained between 2017 and 2018 were used. The variables analyzed included milk production, SCC, milk fat, protein and urea nitrogen contents and reproductive characteristics (number of services per conception, service period and percentage of pregnant cows). Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and the statistical differentiation between the classes of SCC and milk production. Milk production, SCC, number of services per conception and service period were all higher in multiparous cows. The percentage of pregnant cows was higher when the SCC was less than 200 000 cells/ml and was higher in primiparous cows. There was no adverse effect of milk production on reproductive parameters in high producing cows (>40 kg milk/d), however, the percentage of pregnant cows with this production level was significantly higher in multiparous cows. In conclusion, the milk production level need not affect the reproduction of specialized dairy cows if the animals are kept under adequate environmental conditions.

    PMID:38410079 | DOI:10.1017/S002202992300078X

  • Genetic association between fat-to-protein ratio and traits of economic interest in early lactation Holstein cows in Brazil

    Trop Anim Health Prod. 2024 Feb 27;56(2):90. doi: 10.1007/s11250-024-03937-9.

    ABSTRACT

    The aims of this study were to estimate the genetic parameters for fat-to-protein ratio (F:P) within the first 90 days of lactation and to examine their genetic associations with daily milk yield (MY), somatic cell score (SCS), and calving interval between the first and second calving (IFSC) and between the second and third calving (ISTC) during the first three lactations of Holstein cows. We utilized 200,626 production-related data officially recorded from 77,436 cows milked two or three times a day from 2012 to 2022, sourced from the Holstein Cattle Breeders Association of Paraná State, Brazil. The (co)variance components were estimated using animal models, adopting the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method with single-trait analysis (for heritability and repeatability) and two-trait analysis (for genetic and phenotypic correlations), per lactation. Regardless of lactation number, heritability estimates were relatively low, ranging from 0.08 ± 0.005 to 0.10 ± 0.003 for F:P; 0.08 ± 0.01 to 0.18 ± 0.005 for MY; 0.04 ± 0.01 to 0.07 ± 0.004 for SCS; and 0.03 ± 0.01 for both IFSC and ISTC. Repeatability estimates within the same lactation were low for F:P (ranging from 0.17 ± 0.002 to 0.19 ± 0.03), high for MY (between 0.50 ± 0.003 and 0.53 ± 0.002), and moderate to high for SCS (between 0.39 ± 0.003 and 0.44 ± 0.004). Genetic correlations between F:P and MY ranged from -0.26 ± 0.03 to -0.15 ± 0.02; F:P and SCS, from -0.06 ± 0.03 to -0.03 ± 0.08; F:P and IFSC, 0.31 ± 0.01; F:P and ISTC, 0.20 ± 0.01; MY and IFSC, 0.24 ± 0.05; and MY and ISTC, 0.13 ± 0.08. The fat-to-protein ratio during early lactation showed low genetic variability, regardless of lactation number. Furthermore, it was genetically correlated with MY, IFSC, and ISTC, although there is an antagonistic and unfavorable correlation between traits that can limit genetic progress.

    PMID:38413494 | DOI:10.1007/s11250-024-03937-9

  • Therapeutics effects of bovine colostrum applications on gastrointestinal diseases: a systematic review

    Syst Rev. 2024 Feb 26;13(1):76. doi: 10.1186/s13643-024-02489-1.

    ABSTRACT

    BACKGROUND: Evidence on the effects of bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation on gastrointestinal (GI) diseases is conflicting.

    OBJECTIVES: This systematic review summarized the findings of clinical trials (CTs) on the effects of BC supplementation on GI diseases.

    METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in online databases, including PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus, until March 2021 and updated until December 2023. CTs investigated BC’s effect on any measurable symptomatic change in terms of GI health as the primary outcome variable or as one of the outcomes in any population eligible for this systematic review.

    RESULTS: Out of 6881 records, 22 CTs (uncontrolled = 4, cross-over = 1, and parallel = 17) with 1427 patients were enrolled in the systematic review. Diarrhea, the most frequently evaluated symptom (20 interventional arms), was decreased in frequency with BC supplementation in 15 of these arms. However, most studies reported no change in its duration. BC supplementation consistently reduced stool frequency across all seven studies. Abdominal pain relief was noted in four interventional arms but showed no improvement in five others. Assessment of other GI symptoms was limited, yielding inconclusive results.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is limited evidence on the effects of BC on GI diseases, with mixed findings. More well-designed controlled clinical trials are required to explore its effects.

    PMID:38409162 | PMC:PMC10898101 | DOI:10.1186/s13643-024-02489-1

  • Seroprevalence and associated risk factors for bovine leptospirosis in Egypt

    Sci Rep. 2024 Feb 26;14(1):4645. doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-54882-4.

    ABSTRACT

    Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genus Leptospira and is one of causative agents of reproductive problems leading to negative economic impact on bovine worldwide. The goal of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in cattle in some governorates of Egypt’s Nile Delta and assess the risk factors for infection. A total of 410 serum samples were collected from cattle and examined using microscopic agglutination test. The overall seroprevalence was 10.2% and the most prevalent serovars were Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona and Canicola. In addition, the potential risk factors were associated Leptospira spp. infection were age, herd size, history of abortion, presence of dogs and rodent control. Thus, leptospirosis is common in dairy cattle in the Nile Delta and the presence of rodents in feed and dog-accessible pastures increases the risk of Leptospira spp. infection among animals.

    PMID:38409338 | PMC:PMC10897380 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-024-54882-4

  • Mapping Expression Quantitative Trait Loci Targeting Candidate Genes for Pregnancy in Beef Cows

    Biomolecules. 2024 Jan 26;14(2):150. doi: 10.3390/biom14020150.

    ABSTRACT

    Despite collective efforts to understand the complex regulation of reproductive traits, no causative genes and/or mutations have been reported yet. By integrating genomics and transcriptomics data, potential regulatory mechanisms may be unveiled, providing opportunities to dissect the genetic factors governing fertility. Herein, we identified regulatory variants from RNA-Seq data associated with gene expression regulation in the uterine luminal epithelial cells of beef cows. We identified 4676 cis and 7682 trans eQTLs (expression quantitative trait loci) affecting the expression of 1120 and 2503 genes, respectively (FDR < 0.05). These variants affected the expression of transcription factor coding genes (71 cis and 193 trans eQTLs) and genes previously reported as differentially expressed between pregnant and nonpregnant cows. Functional over-representation analysis highlighted pathways related to metabolism, immune response, and hormone signaling (estrogen and GnRH) affected by eQTL-regulated genes (p-value ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, eQTLs were enriched in QTL regions for 13 reproduction-related traits from the CattleQTLdb (FDR ≤ 0.05). Our study provides novel insights into the genetic basis of reproductive processes in cattle. The underlying causal mechanisms modulating the expression of uterine genes warrant further investigation.

    PMID:38397387 | PMC:PMC10886872 | DOI:10.3390/biom14020150

  • Investigation of Climate Effects on the Physiological Parameters of Dairy Livestock (Cow vs. Buffalo)

    Sensors (Basel). 2024 Feb 10;24(4):1164. doi: 10.3390/s24041164.

    ABSTRACT

    Nowadays climate change is affecting the planet’s biodiversity, and livestock practices must adapt themselves to improve production without affecting animal welfare. This work investigates the influence that some climatic parameters such as Environment Temperature, Relative Humidity, Thermal excursion and Temperature-Humidity Index (THI), can have on milk quantity and quality in two different dairy species (buffaloes and cows) raised on the same farm. A further aim was to understand if THI threshold used for cows could also be used for buffaloes. The climatic parameters were recorded daily through a meteorological station located inside the farm. Milk quantity (converted into ECM) and quality (Fat Percentage-FP; Protein Percentage-PP; Somatic Cell Count-SCC) were measured. Data were analyzed with Spearman’s correlation index, separately for buffaloes and cows. The results indicate a greater sensitivity of cows to heat stress and a strong negative correlation of the ECM with meteorological data (p < 0.01). The results of this study may stimulate the use of integrated technologies (sensors, software) in the dairy sector, since the IoT (sensors, software) helps to enhance animal well-being and to optimize process costs, with a precision livestock farming approach.

    PMID:38400322 | PMC:PMC10891940 | DOI:10.3390/s24041164

  • SNAT2-mediated regulation of estrogen and progesterone in the proliferation of goat mammary epithelial cells

    Amino Acids. 2024 Feb 23;56(1):17. doi: 10.1007/s00726-024-03382-w.

    ABSTRACT

    The development of the goat mammary gland is mainly under the control of ovarian hormones particularly estrogen and progesterone (P4). Amino acids play an essential role in mammary gland development and milk production, and sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) was reported to be expressed in the mammary gland of rats and bovine mammary epithelial cells, which may affect the synthesis of milk proteins or mammary cell proliferation by mediating prolactin, 17β-estradiol (E2) or methionine function. However, whether SNAT2 mediates the regulatory effects of E2 and P4 on the development of the ruminant mammary gland is still unclear. In this study, we show that E2 and P4 could increase the proliferation of goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) and regulate SNAT2 mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Further investigation revealed that SNAT2 is abundantly expressed in the mammary gland during late pregnancy and early lactation, while knockdown and overexpression of SNAT2 in GMECs could inhibit or enhance E2– and P4-induced cell proliferation as well as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. We also found that the accelerated proliferation induced by SNAT2 overexpression in GMECs was suppressed by the mTOR signaling pathway inhibitor rapamycin. This indicates that the regulation of GMECs proliferation mediated by SNAT2 in response to E2 and P4 is dependent on the mTOR signaling pathway. Finally, we found that the total content of the amino acids in GMECs changed after knocking-down and overexpressing SNAT2. In summary, the results demonstrate that the regulatory effects of E2 and P4 on GMECs proliferation may be mediated by the SNAT2-transported amino acid pathway. These results may offer a novel nutritional target for improving the development of the ruminant mammary gland and milk production.

    PMID:38393495 | PMC:PMC10891196 | DOI:10.1007/s00726-024-03382-w

  • Multi-omics data integration for the identification of biomarkers for bull fertility

    PLoS One. 2024 Feb 23;19(2):e0298623. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0298623. eCollection 2024.

    ABSTRACT

    Bull fertility is an important economic trait, and the use of subfertile semen for artificial insemination decreases the global efficiency of the breeding sector. Although the analysis of semen functional parameters can help to identify infertile bulls, no tools are currently available to enable precise predictions and prevent the commercialization of subfertile semen. Because male fertility is a multifactorial phenotype that is dependent on genetic, epigenetic, physiological and environmental factors, we hypothesized that an integrative analysis might help to refine our knowledge and understanding of bull fertility. We combined -omics data (genotypes, sperm DNA methylation at CpGs and sperm small non-coding RNAs) and semen parameters measured on a large cohort of 98 Montbéliarde bulls with contrasting fertility levels. Multiple Factor Analysis was conducted to study the links between the datasets and fertility. Four methodologies were then considered to identify the features linked to bull fertility variation: Logistic Lasso, Random Forest, Gradient Boosting and Neural Networks. Finally, the features selected by these methods were annotated in terms of genes, to conduct functional enrichment analyses. The less relevant features in -omics data were filtered out, and MFA was run on the remaining 12,006 features, including the 11 semen parameters and a balanced proportion of each type of-omics data. The results showed that unlike the semen parameters studied the-omics datasets were related to fertility. Biomarkers related to bull fertility were selected using the four methodologies mentioned above. The most contributory CpGs, SNPs and miRNAs targeted genes were all found to be involved in development. Interestingly, fragments derived from ribosomal RNAs were overrepresented among the selected features, suggesting roles in male fertility. These markers could be used in the future to identify subfertile bulls in order to increase the global efficiency of the breeding sector.

    PMID:38394258 | PMC:PMC10890740 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0298623

  • Impact of feeding regimes and lactation stage on sensory attributes of Cheddar cheese

    Food Res Int. 2024 Mar;180:114046. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2024.114046. Epub 2024 Jan 26.

    ABSTRACT

    This study investigated the effects of diet and stage of lactation (SOL) on sensory profiles, texture, volatile profiles, and colour of Cheddar cheese. Cheddar cheese was manufactured from early-, mid-, and late-lactation milk obtained from seasonally calved cows (n = 54). Cows were assigned a diet; group 1: perennial ryegrass (GRS), group 2: total mixed ration (TMR), and group 3: partial mixed ration (PMR). Instrumental analysis was performed at 270 days (mature Cheddar). Sensory evaluation took place after 548 days (extra mature Cheddar). Toluene was the only volatile compound that was significantly influenced by diet. The trained panel rated early-lactation cheese as stronger than mid- and late- for cowy/barny flavour and late-lactation cheese as sweeter than early- and mid-lactation cheese. Mid-lactation cheese was liked least overall. Early-lactation cheeses were rated higher for ‘crumbly’ texture than mid- and late. Diet affected consumer ratings, with GRS and PMR cheese rated as more intense than TMR for flavour, aftertaste, and saltiness. Consumers reported that TMR cheese was lighter in colour compared to GRS cheese, which was supported by instrumental analysis. Consumers perceived GRS as more springy and less crumbly than TMR and PMR, while Texture Profile Analysis indicated that TMR was harder than GRS. Consumer segmentation was observed with two clear preference groups, one preferring GRS and one preferring TMR. For both groups, ‘taste’ seemed to be the main driver of liking, highlighting that consumer preference is most impacted by individual taste preferences.

    PMID:38395564 | DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2024.114046

  • Comparative pangenomic analysis of Campylobacter fetus isolated from Spanish bulls and other mammalian species

    Sci Rep. 2024 Feb 22;14(1):4347. doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-54750-1.

    ABSTRACT

    Campylobacter fetus comprises two closely related mammal-associated subspecies: Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus (Cff) and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv). The latter causes bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually-transmitted disease endemic in Spain that results in significant economic losses in the cattle industry. Here, 33 C. fetus Spanish isolates were whole-genome sequenced and compared with 62 publicly available C. fetus genomes from other countries. Genome-based taxonomic identification revealed high concordance with in silico PCR, confirming Spanish isolates as Cff (n = 4), Cfv (n = 9) and Cfv biovar intermedius (Cfvi, n = 20). MLST analysis assigned the Spanish isolates to 6 STs, including three novel: ST-76 and ST-77 for Cfv and ST-78 for Cff. Core genome SNP phylogenetic analysis of the 95 genomes identified multiple clusters, revealing associations at subspecies and biovar level between genomes with the same ST and separating the Cfvi genomes from Spain and other countries. A genome-wide association study identified pqqL as a Cfv-specific gene and a potential candidate for more accurate identification methods. Functionality analysis revealed variations in the accessory genome of C. fetus subspecies and biovars that deserve further studies. These results provide valuable information about the regional variants of C. fetus present in Spain and the genetic diversity and predicted functionality of the different subspecies.

    PMID:38388650 | PMC:PMC10884003 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-024-54750-1

  • Transcriptomics and metabolomics of blood, urine and ovarian follicular fluid of yak at induced estrus stage

    BMC Genomics. 2024 Feb 21;25(1):201. doi: 10.1186/s12864-024-10079-7.

    ABSTRACT

    To gain a deeper understanding of the metabolic differences within and outside the body, as well as changes in transcription levels following estrus in yaks, we conducted transcriptome and metabolome analyses on female yaks in both estrus and non-estrus states. The metabolome analysis identified 114, 13, and 91 distinct metabolites in urine, blood, and follicular fluid, respectively. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis highlighted an enrichment of pathways related to amino acid and lipid metabolism across all three body fluids. Our transcriptome analysis revealed 122 differentially expressed genes within microRNA (miRNA) and 640 within long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). Functional enrichment analysis of lncRNA and miRNA indicated their involvement in cell signaling, disease resistance, and immunity pathways. We constructed a regulatory network composed of 10 lncRNAs, 4 miRNAs, and 30 mRNAs, based on the targeted regulation relationships of the differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, the accumulation of metabolites such as amino acids, steroids, and organic acids, along with the expression changes of key genes like miR-129 during yak estrus, provide initial insights into the estrus mechanism in yaks.

    PMID:38383305 | PMC:PMC10882836 | DOI:10.1186/s12864-024-10079-7

  • The Border Disease virus (BDV) prevalence and genetic typing in ruminant flocks in Turkey

    Vet Ital. 2023 Jul 31;59(2). doi: 10.12834/VetIt.2693.17780.2.

    ABSTRACT

    This study aims to update current data regarding Border Disease in sheep and goats, determine the first prevalence of BDV in cattle and identify its circulated genotype in Turkey. For this purpose, 100 sheep, 20 goats and 193 cattle aborted fetuses sent for diagnosis to Samsun Veterinary Control Institute between 2015 and 2017 were analyzed in terms of pestivirus by Ag‑ELISA, BDV by Real‑Time test (RT‑PCR) and Conventional RT‑PCR test. The rate of pestivirus positive animals was found at 50.26% (97/193) in cattle, 58% (58/100) in sheep and 55% (11/20) in goats by the pestivirus Ag‑ELISA test. Total of 58 Ag‑ELISA positive sheep were tested by Real‑Time RT‑PCR and conventional RT‑PCR tests. End of the tests, one sheep sample (1.72%) was found BDV positive by Real‑Time RT‑PCR test and three sheep (5.17%) and one cattle (1.03%) samples were detected as BDV positive by conventional RT‑PCR test. BDV positivity was not detected in goats in this research. All samples that were found positive by conventional RT‑PCR test and Real‑Time RT‑PCR test were genotyped by phylogenetic sequence analysis, and obtained results showed that BDV‑3 and BDV‑7 genotypes of BDV in sheep and BVDV‑1 genotype in cattle circulated in the investigated area. The sequence analysis results revealed that conventional RT‑PCR and Real‑Time RT‑PCR tests detected genotype BDV‑3, while genotype BDV‑7 was only detected by conventional RT‑PCR test in sheep abortion materials. Additionally, it was found that one bovine specimen was BDV positive by conventional PCR, but the same sample was identified as BVDV‑1 at sequence analysis. The obtained data of this study showed that new probes should be designed using our local strains for BDV diagnosis by Real‑Time RT‑PCR assay, and cattle must be sampled for BDV screening, and PCR tests results should always be confirmed by sequence analysis.

    PMID:38376833 | DOI:10.12834/VetIt.2693.17780.2

  • Changes in plasma PLAC-1 concentration and its expression during early-mid pregnancy in bovine placental tissues – a pilot study

    BMC Vet Res. 2024 Feb 20;20(1):59. doi: 10.1186/s12917-024-03898-z.

    ABSTRACT

    BACKGROUND: Placenta-specific protein 1 (PLAC1) is a small secreted protein considered to be a molecule with a significant role in the development of the placenta and the establishment of the mother-foetus interface. This study aimed to confirm the presence of bovine PLAC1 and to examine its profile in the placenta and plasma in the first six months of pregnancy. The expression pattern of PLAC1 was analysed by RT-qPCR and Western Blotting. Quantitative evaluation was carried out using ELISA.

    RESULTS: PLAC1 concentrations in the plasma of pregnant cows were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those obtained from non-pregnant animals. PLAC1 protein concentrations in the placental tissues of the foetal part were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than in the tissues of the maternal part of the placenta. PLAC1 transcripts were detected in both placental tissue samples and epithelial cell cultures.

    CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the results of the present preliminary study suggest that PLAC1 is involved in the development of bovine placenta. The presence of this protein in the plasma of pregnant animals as early as the first month may make it a potential candidate as a pregnancy marker in cows. Further studies on exact mechanisms of action of PLAC1 in bovine placenta are necessary.

    PMID:38378537 | PMC:PMC10877859 | DOI:10.1186/s12917-024-03898-z

  • Maternal prepartum supplementation of protein and energy and body condition score modulated the performance of Bos indicus-influenced cow-calf pairs

    Anim Reprod Sci. 2024 Mar;262:107433. doi: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2024.107433. Epub 2024 Feb 12.

    ABSTRACT

    Retrospective analyses were performed on a dataset of 1188 fall-calving, Brangus cow-calf pairs. Analyses 1 sorted cows according to their initial body condition score (BCS < 5 vs. ≥ 5) and whether they received (SUP) or not (NOSUP) prepartum supplementation of protein and energy. Analyses 2 sorted cows according to their calving BCS (BCS < 5 or ≥ 5) and BCS change from calving until the start of the breeding season (lost, maintained, or gained). Cows were not estrus synchronized and were assigned to natural breeding for 90 days. Prepartum supplementation increased (P = 0.04) pregnancy percentage in cows with initial BCS < 5 but not (P = 0.20) with initial BCS ≥ 5. Calf weaning weight was greatest (P ≤ 0.04) for calves born from SUP cows with an initial BCS ≥ 5 and did not differ (P ≥ 0.56) among all remaining groups. Among cows with calving BCS < 5, pregnancy percentage were less (P = 0.05) for cows that lost vs. maintained/gained BCS. Postpartum BCS change did not (P ≥ 0.16) impact pregnancy percentage of cows calving at BCS ≥ 5. Calf weaning weight increased (P < 0.01) for cows calving with BCS ≥ 5 vs. < 5 and was not impacted (P = 0.47) by postpartum BCS change. Therefore, precalving supplementation improved reproduction of cows with BCS below optimal and weaning weight of calves born from cows with BCS above optimal, whereas calving BCS was the major factor affecting postpartum BCS change and cow reproductive performance.

    PMID:38368654 | DOI:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2024.107433

  • Anti-Müllerian hormone: A novel biomarker for detecting bovine freemartinism

    Reprod Domest Anim. 2024 Feb;59(2):e14542. doi: 10.1111/rda.14542.

    ABSTRACT

    The anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) indicates ovarian reserve in cattle, maintaining a consistent trajectory post-puberty. In heterosexual pregnancies, the development of the Müllerian duct in female foetuses is inhibited, resulting in an anticipated minimal or absent ovarian reserve capacity. This investigation aimed to compare AMH levels in healthy Holstein heifers that had reached puberty with those of freemartin animals of the same breed and age. The study incorporated Holstein heifers reaching puberty between 11 and 15 months of age in Group 1 (G1, n = 20) and freemartin animals in Group 2 (G2, n = 19, 16). AMH measurements (AMH-1/AMH-2) were recorded at 12-day intervals for the study participants. Notably, AMH levels in three freemartin animals could not be detected, prompting statistical analysis based on measurements from the remaining 16 freemartin animals in G2. A statistically significant correlation was observed between two separate measurements in G1 and G2 (p < .001). Furthermore, AMH-1 and AMH-2 levels were statistically higher in G1 than in G2 (p < .001). In G1, AMH-1 levels ranged from 227 to 677 pg/mL, with an average of 367.3 ± 25.5 pg/mL, and AMH-2 levels ranged from 234 to 645 pg/mL, with an average of 380.8 ± 24.4 pg/mL. Conversely, in G2, AMH-1 levels ranged from 10 to 72 pg/mL, with an average of 26.8 ± 4.44 pg/mL, and AMH-2 levels ranged from 12 to 68 pg/mL, with an average of 28.75 ± 4.18 pg/mL. The mean AMH levels in G1 were approximately 14 times higher than in G2 (p < .001). Consequently, ROC analysis utilizing AMH-1 and AMH-2 data established cut-off values of ≤72 and ≤ 68 pg/mL respectively for distinguishing freemartin animals. In conclusion, AMH could be used as a reliable biomarker for identifying Holstein freemartin animals.

    PMID:38366707 | DOI:10.1111/rda.14542

  • Novel Multitarget ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Bovine Colostrum Immunoglobulin G: Cellular Transport, Efficacy in Regulating Endothelial Dysfunction, and Network Pharmacology Studies

    J Agric Food Chem. 2024 Feb 28;72(8):4155-4169. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.3c08795. Epub 2024 Feb 17.

    ABSTRACT

    In this study, we used traditional laboratory methods, bioinformatics, and cellular models to screen novel ACE inhibitory (ACEI) peptides with strong ACEI activity, moderate absorption rates, and multiple targets from bovine colostrum immunoglobulin G (IgG). The purified fraction of the compound proteinase hydrolysate of IgG showed good ACEI activity. After nano-UPLC-MS/MS identification and in silico analysis, eight peptides were synthesized and verified. Among them, SFYPDY, TSFYPDY, FSWF, WYQQVPGSGL, and GVHTFP were identified as ACEI peptides, as they exhibited strong ACEI activity (with IC50 values of 104.7, 80.0, 121.2, 39.8, and 86.3 μM, respectively). They displayed good stability in an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion assay. In a Caco-2 monolayer model, SFYPDY, FSWF, and WYQQVPGSGL exhibited better absorption rates and lower IC50 values than the other peptides and were thereby identified as novel ACEI peptides. Subsequently, in a H2O2-induced endothelial dysfunction (ED) model based on HUVECs, SFYPDY, FSWF, and WYQQVPGSGL regulated ED by reducing apoptosis and ROS accumulation while upregulating NOS3 mRNA expression. Network pharmacology analysis and RT-qPCR confirmed that they regulated multiple targets. Overall, our results suggest that SFYPDY, FSWF, and WYQQVPGSGL can serve as novel multitarget ACEI peptides.

    PMID:38366990 | DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.3c08795

  • Effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin dosage and its splitting in different days on reproductive performance of Nellore cows synchronized for timed-artificial insemination

    Theriogenology. 2024 Apr 1;218:267-275. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2024.02.006. Epub 2024 Feb 6.

    ABSTRACT

    This study evaluated the effects of dose of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and its splitting in different days of the synchronization protocol on reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous Nellore cows. In the present study, 2,536 Nellore cows (1,634 primiparous and 902 multiparous) were assigned to receive in a 2 × 2 factorial design 1) an intravaginal progesterone (P4) device and 2.0 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) on day -11, 12.5 mg (i.m.) of dinoprost tromethamine (PGF), 300 IU (i.m.) of eCG, 0.6 mg (i.m.) of estradiol cypionate (ECP), and P4 device withdrawal on day -2, followed by TAI on day 0 (n = 632 cows, being 409 primiparous and 223 multiparous; 300-2), 2) 300 IU (i.m) of eCG administered on days -4 and -2 (150 IU of eCG/day; n = 637 cows, being 412 primiparous and 225 multiparous; 300-4-2), 3) 400 IU (i.m.) of eCG administered on day -2 (n = 633 cows, being 406 primiparous and 227 multiparous; 400-2), and 4) 400 IU (i.m) of eCG administered on days -4 and -2 (200 IU of eCG/day; n = 634 cows, being 407 primiparous and 227 multiparous; 400-4-2). Individual cow BCS was assessed on days -11, 0 (timed-AI), and 31 of the study. Body condition score of the animals was classified into LOW or HIGH using the threshold of 2.75 (≤2.75 = LOW; >2.75 = HIGH). For primiparous cows, an eCG splitting effect was observed on follicle size, as cows receiving eCG on days -4 and -2 of the synchronization protocol had a larger follicle than cows administered eCG only on day -2. For day 31 P/AI, primiparous cows receiving 400-4-2, regardless of BCS, had a greater P/AI than cows from other treatments. Administering 400-4-2 to LOW BCS cows also resulted in greater P/AI than all other treatments assigned to LOW BCS cows. For multiparous cows, no treatment effect was observed for follicle size, estrus expression, and day 31 P/AI (P ≥ 0.21). In summary, increasing the dose and splitting the dose of eCG positively impacted the pregnancy rates of primiparous cows under a BCS ≤2.75, but no effects were detected on multiparous cows.

    PMID:38367335 | DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2024.02.006

  • Asymmetric growth-limiting development of the female conceptus

    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2024 Feb 1;14:1306513. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1306513. eCollection 2023.

    ABSTRACT

    INTRODUCTION: Sex differences in prenatal growth may contribute to sex-dependent programming effects on postnatal phenotype.

    METHODS: We integrated for the first time phenotypic, histomorphological, clinico-chemical, endocrine and gene expression analyses in a single species, the bovine conceptus at mid-gestation.

    RESULTS: We demonstrate that by mid-gestation, before the onset of accelerated growth, the female conceptus displays asymmetric lower growth compared to males. Female fetuses were smaller with lower ponderal index and organ weights than males. However, their brain:body weight, brain:liver weight and heart:body weight ratios were higher than in males, indicating brain and heart ‘sparing’. The female placenta weighed less and had lower volumes of trophoblast and fetal connective tissue than the male placenta. Female umbilical cord vessel diameters were smaller, and female-specific relationships of body weight and brain:liver weight ratios with cord vessel diameters indicated that the umbilico-placental vascular system creates a growth-limiting environment where blood flow is redistributed to protect brain and heart growth. Clinico-chemical indicators of liver perfusion support this female-specific growth-limiting phenotype, while lower insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene expression in brain and heart, and lower circulating IGF2, implicate female-specific modulation of key endocrine mediators by nutrient supply.

    CONCLUSION: This mode of female development may increase resilience to environmental perturbations in utero and contribute to sex-bias in programming outcomes including susceptibility to non-communicable diseases.

    PMID:38362586 | PMC:PMC10867182 | DOI:10.3389/fendo.2023.1306513

  • Single-cell RNA-Seq reveals the earliest lineage specification and X chromosome dosage compensation in bovine preimplantation embryos

    FASEB J. 2024 Feb 29;38(4):e23492. doi: 10.1096/fj.202302035RR.

    ABSTRACT

    Lineage specification and X chromosome dosage compensation are two crucial biological processes that occur during preimplantation embryonic development. Although extensively studied in mice, the timing and regulation of these processes remain elusive in other species, including humans. Previous studies have suggested conserved principles of human and bovine early development. This study aims to provide fundamental insights into these programs and the regulation using a bovine embryo model by employing single-cell transcriptomics and genome editing approaches. The study analyzes the transcriptomes of 286 individual cells and reveals that bovine trophectoderm/inner cell mass transcriptomes diverge at the early blastocyst stage, after cavitation but before blastocyst expansion. The study also identifies transcriptomic markers and provides the timing of lineage specification events in the bovine embryo. Importantly, we find that SOX2 is required for the first cell decision program in bovine embryos. Moreover, the study shows the occurrence of X chromosome dosage compensation from morula to late blastocyst and reveals that this compensation results from downregulation of X-linked genes in female embryonic cells. The transcriptional atlas generated by this study is expected to be widely useful in improving our understanding of mammalian early embryo development.

    PMID:38363564 | DOI:10.1096/fj.202302035RR

  • Untargeted metabolomics of buffalo urine reveals hydracyrlic acid, 3-bromo-1-propanol and benzyl serine as potential estrus biomarkers

    J Proteomics. 2024 Mar 30;296:105124. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2024.105124. Epub 2024 Feb 14.

    ABSTRACT

    Buffalo is a silent heat animal and doesn’t show prominent signs of estrous like cattle so it becomes difficult for farmers to determine the receptivity of the animal based purely on the animal behaviour. India, having a huge population size, needs to produce more milk for the population. Successful artificial insemination greatly depends on the receptivity of the animal. Hence the present study aimed to identify the changes in the metabolome of the buffalo. GC-MS based mass spectrometric analysis was deployed for the determination of estrous by differential expression of metabolites. It was found that hydracrylic acid, 3-bromo-1-propanol and benzyl serine were significantly upregulated in the estrous phase of buffalo (p.value ≤0.05, FC ≥ 2). The pathway enrichment analysis also supported the same as pathways related to amino acid metabolism and fatty acid metabolism were up regulated along with the Warburg effect which is linked to the rapid cell proliferation which might help prepare animals to meet the energy requirement during the estrous. Further analysis of the metabolic biomarkers using ROC analysis also supported these three metabolites as probable biomarkers as they were identified with AUC values of 0.7 or greater. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study focuses on the untargeted metabolomics studies of buffalo urine with special reference to the estrous phase of reproductive cycle. The estrous signals are more prominent in cattle, where animals show clear estrous signals such as mounting and discharge along with vocal signals. Buffalo is a silent heat animal and it becomes difficult for farmers to detect the estrous based on the physical and behavioral signals. Hence the present study focuses on GC-MS based untargeted metabolomics to identify differentially expressed urine metabolites. In this study, hydracrylic acid, 3-bromo-1-propanol and benzyl serine were found to be significantly upregulated in the estrous phase of buffalo (p-value ≤0.05, FC ≥ 2). Further confirmation of the metabolic biomarkers was done using Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis which also supported these three metabolites as probable biomarkers as they had AUC values of 0.7 or greater. Hence, this study will be of prime importance for the people working in the area of animal metabolomics.

    PMID:38364903 | DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2024.105124

  • The dependence between glycodelin and selected metalloproteinases concentrations in bovine placenta during early gestation and parturition with and without retained foetal membranes

    Theriogenology. 2024 Apr 1;218:231-238. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2024.02.005. Epub 2024 Feb 5.

    ABSTRACT

    Pregnancy course depends on the appropriate connection between the mother and the developing foetus. Pregnancy is completed when the placenta is timely expelled. Placental retention is one of the possible pregnancy complications. Extracellular matrix, including adhesive proteins and enzymes that can break down collagens, seems to be responsible for it. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of one of the adhesive proteins – glycodelin (Gd) – on selected metalloproteinases degrading collagens (MMP2, MMP3, MMP7). Placental tissues from healthy pregnant cows collected during early-mid pregnancy (2nd month n = 7, 3rd month n = 8, 4th month n = 6) and in cows that properly released placenta (NR; n = 6) and cows with retained foetal membranes (R; n = 6) were experimental material. The concentrations of glycodelin and protein content of selected metalloproteinases were measured by ELISA in the maternal and foetal placental homogenates as well as in the culture of epithelial cells derived from the maternal part of the placenta. The presence of these protein molecules was confirmed by Western Blotting. In the bovine placenta, the concentrations of examined proteins exhibit significant changes during placental formation. Gd, MMP3 and MMP7 concentrations decrease with pregnancy progress (between the 2nd and 4th month), while MMP2 concentrations were on the same level in this period. During parturition, concentrations of Gd and MMP3 were significantly higher in the R group compared to the NR group. In parallel, MMP2 concentrations did not show significant differences between the groups (NR vs R), and MMP7 concentrations decreased significantly in the maternal part of the placenta in cows with retained foetal membranes (R). Obtained results show correlations between the gestational age and proteins’ (Gd, MMP3, MMP7) concentration, both in the maternal and foetal part of the placenta.

    PMID:38359561 | DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2024.02.005

  • Exposure to progesterone before an ovulation synchronization protocol increases the follicular diameter and fertility of multiparous suckled Bos taurus cows

    Theriogenology. 2024 Apr 1;218:239-243. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2024.01.031. Epub 2024 Jan 26.

    ABSTRACT

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of administering injectable progesterone (P4i) before a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol on the follicular growth, ovulation, and pregnancy rate of Bos taurus suckled cows. The effect of P4i administration before the TAI on the pregnancy rate (P/AI) was evaluated in 576 suckled Bos taurus cows at 30-90 days postpartum. In addition, the effect of P4i administration before TAI on follicular dynamics was evaluated in subgroup of 401 suckled Bos taurus cows. On Day -10 (D-10), cows were divided into two experimental groups (Control and P4i). In this moment, P4i cows received i.m. 150 mg of injectable long-action progesterone. After that, both experimental groups received a synchronization protocol (Day 0; D0) that consisted of administration i.m. of 2 mg of estradiol benzoate and a progesterone intravaginal insert on D0. On Day 8 (D8), the progesterone insert was removed, and the cows received 500 μg of cloprostenol, 400 IU of eCG, and 1 mg of estradiol cypionate. TAI was performed 48 h after the removal of the progesterone insert. The ultrasound exams were performed in a subgroup of cows on Days 0, 8, 10 and 12 to evaluate the diameter of the largest follicle, rate of follicular growth and risks of single and double ovulation. The pregnancy diagnosis was performed 30 days after TAI in all cows to determine the pregnancy rate. The diameter of the largest follicle, on D10 (P = 0.84), rate of follicular growth (P = 0.14), ovulation rate (P = 0.40) and double ovulation rates (P = 0.23) did not differ between experimental groups. The pregnancy rate was greater in the P4i group [Control 46.2 % (133/288) vs. P4i 55.6 % (160/288); P = 0.03]. The diameter of the largest follicles (LF) on D0 (Control 11.6 ± 0.2 vs. P4i 13.3 ± 0.3) was greater (P = 0.01) in the P4i group. In conclusion, injectable progesterone before the ovulation synchronization protocol increased the diameter of the largest follicle on the D0 and the pregnancy rate in multiparous Bos taurus suckled beef cows.

    PMID:38359562 | DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2024.01.031

  • Economic losses caused by mastitis and the influence of climate variation on the occurrence of the disease in a dairy cattle farm in southern Brazil

    Trop Anim Health Prod. 2024 Feb 14;56(2):78. doi: 10.1007/s11250-024-03914-2.

    ABSTRACT

    This study evaluated the economic impacts caused by mastitis in a small dairy farm with similar characteristics and production to most dairy farms in southern Brazil and investigated if climatic variations influenced mastitis occurrence in the region. A farm with, on average, 45 lactating Holstein cattle was monitored from November 2021 to October 2022, and data on mastitis cases, bulk tank milk somatic cell count, animal treatment costs, milk production, animal disposal costs, and production losses were collected. Monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity (RH), and rainfall in the region were obtained. The greatest loss was related to the drop in milk production, resulting in 63.8% of total losses, followed by animal disposal (29.5%), milk disposal (4.6%), and treating animals with mastitis (2.0%), totaling a 10.6% reduction in the annual gross income. There were negative correlations between the clinical mastitis rate and monthly RH and between subclinical mastitis and temperature; the occurrence of subclinical mastitis and average RH were positively correlated. Our findings showed that mastitis negatively impacted the economy and that climate influenced mastitis occurrence.

    PMID:38351405 | DOI:10.1007/s11250-024-03914-2

  • Supplementation with long-acting injectable progesterone 3 days after TAI impaired luteal function in buffaloes

    Trop Anim Health Prod. 2024 Feb 13;56(2):76. doi: 10.1007/s11250-024-03913-3.

    ABSTRACT

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of long-acting injectable progesterone (iP4) in buffalo cows. In Experiment 1, ovariectomized buffaloes received 300 mg (iP300) or 600 mg (iP600) of iP4, and serum P4 concentrations were evaluated. In experiment 2, three groups were compared: control or administration of 300 mg of iP4 3 (iP4-D3) or 6 days (iP4-D6) after timed artificial insemination (TAI). On day 16, reproductive tract was recovered for conceptus, endometrium, and corpus luteum (CL) analysis. In experiment 3, pregnancy per AI (P/TAI) and proportion of pregnancy losses were evaluated after administration of 300 mg of iP4 3 (iP4-D3) or 6 days (iP4-D6) after TAI in lactating buffaloes. In experiment 1, serum P4 concentrations remained over 1 ng/mL for ~ 3 days in both groups. The 300 mg dose was used in subsequent experiments. In experiment 2, CL weight and endometrial glands density were decreased, and conceptus length was increased in iP4-D3 compared to control and to iP4-D6 (P < 0.05). Transcript abundance of Prostaglandin F Receptor (FP) and ISG15 in CL and of ISG15 and MX1 in endometrium was greater in iP4-D3 when compared to control and to iP4-D6 (P < 0.05). In experiment 3, there was no difference among experimental groups for P/TAI at D30 and pregnancy losses (P > 0.1); however, iP4-D3 presented a lower P/TAI at day 60 (41.7%) when compared to control (56.8%) and iP4-D6 (57.7%; P = 0.07). In conclusion, administration iP4 at 3 days after TAI affects CL development and consequently decreases final pregnancy outcome in buffaloes.

    PMID:38349441 | DOI:10.1007/s11250-024-03913-3

  • A high concentrate diet inhibits forkhead box protein A2 expression, and induces oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial unfolded protein response in the liver of dairy cows

    Microb Pathog. 2024 Mar;188:106570. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2024.106570. Epub 2024 Feb 8.

    ABSTRACT

    High-concentrate diet induce subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and cause liver damage in ruminants. It has been reported that forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2) can enhance mitochondrial membrane potential but its function in mitochondrial dysfunction induced by high concentrate diets is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of high-concentrate (HC) diet on hepatic FOXA2 expression, mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. A total of 12 healthy mid-lactation Holstein cows were selected and randomized into 2 groups: the low concentrate (LC) diet group (concentrate:forage = 4:6) and HC diet group (concentrate:forage = 6:4). The trial lasted 21 d. The rumen fluid, blood and liver tissue were collected at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the rumen fluid pH level was reduced in the HC group and the pH was lower than 5.6 for more than 4 h/d, indicating that feeding HC diets successfully induced SARA in dairy cows. Both FOXA2 mRNA and protein abundance were significantly reduced in the liver of the HC group compared with the LC group. The activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, G6PDH, T-SOD, Cu/Zn SOD, Mn SOD) and mtDNA copy number in the liver tissue of the HC group decreased, while the level of H2O2 significantly increased, this increase was accompanied by a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The balance of mitochondrial division and fusion was disrupted in the HC group, as evidenced by the decreased mRNA level of OPA1, MFN1, and MFN2 and increased mRNA level of Drp1, Fis1, and MFF. At the same time, HC diet downregulated the expression level of SIRT1, SIRT3, PGC-1α, TFAM, and Nrf 1 to inhibit mitochondrial biogenesis. The HC group induced UPRmt in liver tissue by upregulating the mRNA and protein levels of CLPP, LONP1, CHOP, Hsp10, and Hsp60. In addition, HC diet could increase the protein abundance of Bax, CytoC, Caspase 3 and Cleaved-Caspase 3, while decrease the protein abundance of Bcl-2 and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Overall, our study suggests that the decreased expression of FOXA2 may be related to UPRmt, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the liver of dairy cows fed a high concentrate diet.

    PMID:38341108 | DOI:10.1016/j.micpath.2024.106570

  • The importance of developmental programming in the dairy industry

    Anim Reprod Sci. 2024 Mar;262:107428. doi: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2024.107428. Epub 2024 Feb 5.

    ABSTRACT

    The concept of developmental programming suggests that environmental influences during pre- and early postnatal life that can have long-term effects on future health and performance. In dairy cattle, maternal body growth, age, parity and milk yield, as well as environmental factors during gestation, have the potential to create a suboptimal environment for the developing fetus. As a result, the calf’s phenotype may undergo adaptations. Moreover, developmental programming can have long-term effects on subsequent birth weight, immunity and metabolism, as well as on postnatal growth, body composition, fertility, milk yield and even longevity of dairy cows. This review provides an overview of the impact of developmental programming on later health and performance in dairy cows.

    PMID:38340370 | DOI:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2024.107428

  • Rumen degradable protein levels on fatty acid profile of rumen bacteria and milk fat of dairy cows supplemented with calcium salts of fatty acids

    Anim Sci J. 2024 Jan-Dec;95(1):e13920. doi: 10.1111/asj.13920.

    ABSTRACT

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) from soybean oil in diets with different levels of rumen degradable protein (RDP) on bio-hydrogenation extent, and fatty acid (FA) profile intake, omasal digesta, rumen bacteria, and milk fat. Eight Holstein lactating cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design with two CSFA levels (0 or 33.2 g/kg DM of CSFA) and two RDP levels (98.0 or 110 g/kg DM). There was RDP and CSFA interaction effect on the omasal flow of total FA and some specific FA. Only in -CSFA diets, the higher RDP level increased omasal flow of total FA. Dietary RDP levels did not affect the FA profile of bacteria and milk fat. Feeding CSFA reduced or tended to reduce the bacterial proportion of C15:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, and C18:0 FA and decreased the concentrations of short- and medium-chain FA (<18C) and increased the concentrations of unsaturated and long-chain FA (≥18C) in milk fat. Feeding CSFA of soybean oil increases the intake and omasal flow of FA and augments unsaturated FA content in bacteria pellets and milk fat.

    PMID:38323695 | DOI:10.1111/asj.13920

  • Molecular detection and MST genotyping of Coxiella burnetii in ruminants and stray dogs and cats in Northern Algeria

    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2024 Mar;106:102126. doi: 10.1016/j.cimid.2024.102126. Epub 2024 Jan 24.

    ABSTRACT

    Aiming at identifying the reservoir and contamination sources of Coxiella burnetii in Northern Algeria, we investigated the molecular presence of the bacterium in 599 samples (blood, placenta, liver, spleen, and uterus) collected from cattle, sheep, dogs and cats. Our qPCR results showed that 15/344 (4.36%) blood samples and six/255 (2.35%) organ specimens were positive for C. burnetii. In cattle, three (4%) blood and liver samples were positive. In sheep, one blood (1.19%) and 3 (8.57%) placenta samples were positive. At the Algiers dog pound, 8 (10%) and 3 (5%) blood samples were qPCR positivein dogs and cats, respectively. In addition, MST genotyping showed that MST 33 was present in cattle and sheep, MST 20 in cattle,andMST 21 in dogs and cats.

    PMID:38325127 | DOI:10.1016/j.cimid.2024.102126

  • Glutathione safeguards TET-dependent DNA demethylation and is critical for the acquisition of totipotency and pluripotency during preimplantation development

    FASEB J. 2024 Feb 15;38(3):e23453. doi: 10.1096/fj.202301220R.

    ABSTRACT

    During early development, both genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming and metabolic remodeling are hallmark changes of normal embryogenesis. However, little is known about their relationship and developmental functions during the preimplantation window, which is essential for the acquisition of totipotency and pluripotency. Herein, we reported that glutathione (GSH), a ubiquitous intracellular protective antioxidant that maintains mitochondrial function and redox homeostasis, plays a critical role in safeguarding postfertilization DNA demethylation and is essential for establishing developmental potential in preimplantation embryos. By profiling mitochondria-related transcriptome that coupled with different pluripotency, we found GSH is a potential marker that is tightly correlated with full pluripotency, and its beneficial effect on prompting developmental potential was functionally conformed using in vitro fertilized mouse and bovine embryos as the model. Mechanistic study based on preimplantation embryos and embryonic stem cells further revealed that GSH prompts the acquisition of totipotency and pluripotency by facilitating ten-eleven-translocation (TET)-dependent DNA demethylation, and ascorbic acid (AsA)-GSH cycle is implicated in the process. In addition, we also reported that GSH serves as an oviductal paracrine factor that supports development potential of preimplantation embryos. Thus, our results not only advance the current knowledge of functional links between epigenetic reprogramming and metabolic remodeling during preimplantation development but also provided a promising approach for improving current in vitro culture system for assisted reproductive technology.

    PMID:38318639 | DOI:10.1096/fj.202301220R

  • Economic viability of using OvSynch and fixed timed artificial insemination protocol in breeding improvement of pastoral herds in the rangelands

    Trop Anim Health Prod. 2024 Feb 6;56(2):68. doi: 10.1007/s11250-024-03907-1.

    ABSTRACT

    Though using Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) can improve oestrus detection, conception and pregnancy success, thus benefit breeding program implementation, empirical evidence of their economic viability is lacking to inform investment decisions in pastoral herds. This study assessed economic viability of using OvSynch and fixed Timed Artificial Insemination (TAI) protocol in Sahiwal upgrading breeding program under two hypothetical cases of best and worst in activity-based money allocations when pastoral herds deploy either optimal or low input husbandry practices. From herd owners’ assessment of milk production, best-case scenarios attain on average 10 L/cow/day with optimal husbandry and 5 L/cow/day with low input husbandry. The worst-case scenarios attain 5 L/cow/day with optimal husbandry and 1 L/cow/day with low input husbandry. Benefit- Cost Analysis (BCA) estimated Net Present Value (NPV), Benefit-Cost ratio (BCR) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) to establish economic viability of using OvSynch and TAI Protocol in pastoral breeding programs. Both best-case scenarios retuned positive NPVs (82,028 and 6,912), BCR values (1.68 and 1.08) and IRR (27.46% and 8.08%) while worst-case scenarios returned negative NPVs (-135,855 and -141,025), BCR values of below 1 (0.87 and 0.66) and IRR values below the minimum rate of returns. These economic parameters were sensitive to price changes in inputs and outputs, under both optimal and low input husbandry practices. Results indicate that using OvSynch and TAI Protocol is a profitable and economically viable investment under optimal husbandry practices but not under low input husbandry practices. By implications, use of OvSynch and TAI Protocol in Sahiwal upgrading breeding programs need be accompanied with improved husbandry practices and de-risking pastoral herd owners from price changes in input and output markets.

    PMID:38319501 | DOI:10.1007/s11250-024-03907-1

  • Antirotaviral activity of dairy byproducts enriched in fractions from hyperimmune bovine colostrum: the effect of thermal and high hydrostatic pressure treatments

    Food Funct. 2024 Feb 19;15(4):2265-2281. doi: 10.1039/d3fo05250h.

    ABSTRACT

    Nowadays, rotaviruses remain a major health burden, especially in developing countries, and strategies complementary to vaccination are needed. In this view, dairy fractions have attracted great scientific interest, due to their high content of bioactive compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity of whey and buttermilk enriched in proteins from hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC) against rotavirus. The enriched fractions were spray-dried and subsequently tested for their neutralizing activity against the bovine rotavirus WC3 strain in vitro, using differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells. The highest antirotaviral activity was observed when whey and buttermilk were enriched in purified immunoglobulin G (IgG), showing complete rotavirus neutralization at concentrations of 3 and 6 mg mL-1 for whey and buttermilk, respectively. Additionally, the use of a crude immunoglobulin fraction also gave satisfactory results. The inhibitory activities of all samples significantly decreased after the application of heat, except for the IgG-enriched buttermilk which showed a slight increase of activity following the application of short-time treatments (75 or 85 °C for 20 s). This sample also showed a significant increase of activity (13%) after the application of low-intensity high hydrostatic pressure treatment (400 MPa for 5 min). The maximum loss of bioactivity was observed at 600 MPa for 10 min (31 and 20% for whey- and buttermilk-based formulas, respectively). This study provides relevant information on the potential of whey, buttermilk, and HBC to be part of functional products as complementary strategies to combat rotavirus infections.

    PMID:38319687 | DOI:10.1039/d3fo05250h

  • Does parity order or cow antibody level influence the humoral immunity of calves for cattle anaplasmosis?

    Trop Anim Health Prod. 2024 Feb 5;56(2):67. doi: 10.1007/s11250-024-03916-0.

    ABSTRACT

    Anaplasmosis is a widely distributed vector-borne disease of cattle caused by the bacteria Anaplasma marginale, which may lead to severe losses in beef and dairy cattle production. Anecdotal information among farmers suggested that some cows may deliver calves more resilient to anaplasmosis. To investigate this, we tested two hypotheses: (i) whether the parity order or (ii) cow antibody levels may influence the humoral immunity of pre-weaning calves against cattle anaplasmosis. For this study, we sampled 170 cattle (Bos taurus taurus, Angus breed) on a farm in Southern Brazil, comprising 85 cows (50 multiparous and 35 primiparous) and their 85 calves (50 days old). Antibodies against A. marginale were investigated using iELISA. Eighty percent of the animals were considered seropositive (100% of the cows and 60% of the calves). There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between calves from primiparous and multiparous cows. However, calves from multiparous cows exhibited higher antibody levels. To address the second question, we classified cows based on their antibody levels to A. marginale (high or low). Calves from cows with high antibody levels also showed elevated antibody levels against A. marginale. Furthermore, calves from cows with high antibody levels had approximately four times greater odds of being seropositive for A. marginale at 50 days old than those born to mothers with low antibody levels. In conclusion, the calf’s antibody level against A. marginale appears to be related to the cow’s parity order and the mother’s antibody level.

    PMID:38316658 | DOI:10.1007/s11250-024-03916-0

  • PPAR-gamma influences developmental competence and trophectoderm lineage specification in bovine embryos

    Reproduction. 2024 Jan 31;167(2):e230334. doi: 10.1530/REP-23-0334. Print 2024 Feb 1.

    ABSTRACT

    IN BRIEF: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) is a critical regulator of placental function, but earlier roles in preimplantation embryo development and embryonic origins of placental formation have not been established. Results herein demonstrate that PPARG responds to pharmacologic stimulation in the bovine preimplantation embryo and influences blastocyst development, cell lineage specification, and transcripts important for placental function.

    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) is a key regulator of metabolism with conserved roles that are indispensable for placental function, suggesting previously unidentified and important roles in preimplantation embryo development. Herein, we report the functional characterization of bovine PPARG to reveal expression beginning on D6 of development with nuclear and ubiquitous patterns. Day 6 PPARG+ embryos have fewer total cells and a lower proportion of trophectoderm cells compared to PPARG- embryos (P < 0.05). Coculture with a PPARG agonist, rosiglitazone (Ros), or antagonist GW9662 (GW), decreases blastocyst development (P < 0.01). Day 7.5 (D7.5) developmentally delayed embryos exposed to Ros express lower transcript abundance of key genes important for placental development and cell lineage formation (CDX2, RXRB, SP1, TFAP2C, SIRT1, and PTEN). In contrast, Ros does not alter transcript abundance in D7.5 blastocysts, but GW treatment lowers RXRA, RXRB, SP1, and NFKB1 expression. Knockout of embryonic PPARG does not alter blastocyst formation and hatching ability but decreases total cell number in D7.5 blastocysts. The decreased embryo development response and affected pathways following targeted pharmacological perturbation vs embryonic knockout of PPARG suggest roles of both maternal and embryonic origins. These data reveal regulatory contributions of PPARG in preimplantation embryo development, cell lineage formation, and regulation of transcripts associated with placental function.

    PMID:38301360 | DOI:10.1530/REP-23-0334

  • Is estradiol valerate an alternative to estradiol benzoate in promoting the synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination in suckled Bos indicus beef cows?

    Theriogenology. 2024 Apr 1;218:56-61. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2024.01.027. Epub 2024 Jan 26.

    ABSTRACT

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of estradiol valerate administered at the beginning of the ovulation synchronization protocol on the pregnancy rate of Bos indicus cows. In the experiments, the following products from MSD, Sao Paulo, Brazil were used: estradiol valerate (EV), estradiol benzoate (EB), intravaginal progesterone device (P4), estradiol cypionate (EC), equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and cloprostenol (PGF). In Experiment 1, Bos indicus cows (n=899) with a body condition score (BCS) of 2.76 ± 0.01 were included in a 3 (device) × 2 (protocol: 5 mg of EV or 2 mg of EB) factorial design. There were three types of P4 devices: a new device (New), a device previously used for 9 days (1×), and a device previously used for 18 days (2×). Nine days later (D9), the P4 device was removed, and cows received 300 IU of eCG. In addition, cows in the EB group received 1 mg of EC and 265 μg of PGF. Timed artificial insemination (TAI) was performed 48 h after P4 device removal in the EB group (TAI48) and 54 h after P4 device removal in the EV group (TAI54). In Experiment 2, Bos indicus cows (n=434) with a BCS of 2.62 ± 0.01 received a new P4 device or one previously used for 9 days and 5 mg of EV. On D9, all cows received 300 IU of eCG, and the P4 devices were removed and distributed in TAI48 and TAI54 cows. In Experiment 3, Bos indicus cows (n=429) with a BCS of 2.80 ± 0.01 were divided into the control and EV/EC groups. All cows received a P4 device. In addition, cows in the control group received 2 mg of EB, and cows in the EV/EC group received 5 mg of EV on D0. On D9, all cows received 1 mg of EC and 300 IU of eCG, and the P4 devices were removed. Cows in the control group also received 265 μg of PGF. All cows were inseminated 48 h after the removal of the P4 device. In Experiment 1, there was no effect of the interaction between protocol and P4 device on the occurrence of estrus (P=0.45) or on the pregnancy per artificial insemination ratio (P/AI; P=0.30). In addition, the occurrence of estrus and P/AI were not different between in the two estradiol groups (P=0.12 and P=0.82) and across the types of intravaginal P4 device (P=0.91 and P=0.47). In Experiment 2, the pregnancy rate was lower (tendency) in TAI48 cows (P=0.07). In Experiment 3, the estrus rate (P=0.12) and P/AI (P=0.56) were similar between the experimental groups. In summary, protocols using estradiol valerate without exogenous ovulation induction require adjustments in the timing of AI from 48 to 54 h after P4 device removal. However, a combination of estradiol valerate at the beginning of the protocol and estradiol cypionate nine days later successfully induced ovulation in Bos indicus cows inseminated 48 h after P4 device removal.

    PMID:38301507 | DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2024.01.027

  • A retrospective study on the effects of dry period length on milk yield and postpartum health in Holstein dairy cows

    Anim Sci J. 2024 Jan-Dec;95(1):e13912. doi: 10.1111/asj.13912.

    ABSTRACT

    We retrospectively analyzed the effects of dry period length (DPL) on milk yield and postpartum health using 152 commercial dairy farm data, including 46,228 dairy cows in Hokkaido, Japan, and examined the optimal DPL. The DPL was divided into eight categories: ≤25, 26-35, 36-45, 46-55, 56-65 (reference), 66-75, 76-85, and ≥86 d. The total milk yields (the sum of milk yield during the 55 d before and the 305 d milk yield after calving) of cows with DPL of ≤55 d did not differ from the reference group. Cows with DPL of ≤55 d had lower odds ratios (OR) of a displaced abomasum (DA), ketosis, milk fever (MF), and abnormal milk fat-to-protein ratio but had higher puerperal fever (PF) and stillbirth ORs than the reference group. Cows with a DPL of 46-55 d had the lowest PF and stillbirth ORs among the short DPL categories. The extremely short (≤25 d) and long (≥86 d) DPL increased the ORs of mastitis and abnormal liner score of somatic cell counts (SCCs) compared with the reference group. We conclude that shortening DPL can reduce postpartum health problems without reducing milk yield and that the optimal DPL is 46-55 d.

    PMID:38302096 | DOI:10.1111/asj.13912

  • Diagnosis and treatment of traumatic reticulitis associated with abomasal obstruction in beef cattle during late pregnancy: A case report

    Open Vet J. 2023 Dec;13(12):1776-1782. doi: 10.5455/OVJ.2023.v13.i12.27. Epub 2023 Dec 31.

    ABSTRACT

    BACKGROUND: Traumatic reticulitis (TR) and abomasal obstruction are common digestive diseases in beef cattle. In clinical practice, these two conditions are often detected alone and rarely occur at the same time. Surgical therapy is an effective approach to treat both of these diseases. However, there are no reports on the treatment of abomasal obstruction in cattle induced by TR.

    CASE DESCRIPTION: We here report a rare case of the diagnosis and treatment of TR associated with abomasal obstruction in a beef cow during late pregnancy. The affected cattle had an iron wire that was piercing the wall of the reticulum, but did not penetrate the wall; the abomasum was blocked and appeared solid; and the fetus survived well in utero (268 days gestation). To save the lives of the cow and fetus on the same day, a cesarean section was first performed, followed by rumenotomy, the foreign body (wire) was removed, and abomasotomy was finally performed. The fetus removed by cesarean section grew well, and the beef cow recovered and successfully became pregnant again.

    CONCLUSION: This case thus offers guidance for the timely diagnosis, effective treatment, and postoperative management of these digestive diseases in cattle to prevent progression and further complications.

    PMID:38292727 | PMC:PMC10824089 | DOI:10.5455/OVJ.2023.v13.i12.27

  • Sperm exposure to accessory gland secretions alters the transcriptomic response of the endometrium in cattle

    Theriogenology. 2024 Apr 1;218:26-34. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2024.01.037. Epub 2024 Jan 29.

    ABSTRACT

    In cattle, mating to intact, but not vasectomised, bulls has been shown to modify the endometrial transcriptome, suggesting an important role of sperm in the modulation of the uterine environment in this species. However, it is not clear whether these changes are driven by intrinsic sperm factors, or by factors of accessory gland (AG) origin that bind to sperm at ejaculation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether ejaculated sperm, which are suspended in the secretions of the AGs, elicit a different endometrial transcriptomic response than epididymal sperm, which have never been exposed to AG factors. To this end, bovine endometrial explants collected from heifers in oestrus were (co-)incubated for 6 h alone (control), or with epididymal sperm or ejaculated sperm, following which transcriptomic changes in the endometrium were evaluated. Epididymal sperm elicited a more dramatic endometrial response than ejaculated sperm, in terms of the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Indeed, RNA-sequencing data analysis revealed 1912 DEGs in endometrial explants exposed to epididymal sperm compared with control explants, whereas 115 DEGs were detected between endometrial explants exposed to ejaculated sperm in comparison to control explants. The top pathways associated with genes upregulated by epididymal sperm included T cell regulation and TNF, NF-KB and IL17 signalling. Interestingly, ejaculated sperm induced downregulation of genes associated with T cell immunity and Th17 differentiation, and upregulation of genes involved in NF-KB signalling, in comparison to epididymal sperm. These data indicate that factors of AG origin modulate the interaction between sperm and the endometrium in cattle.

    PMID:38295677 | DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2024.01.037

  • Factors affecting first ovulation in postpartum dairy cows under tropical conditions: A review

    Open Vet J. 2023 Dec;13(12):1536-1542. doi: 10.5455/OVJ.2023.v13.i12.3. Epub 2023 Dec 31.

    ABSTRACT

    It is documented that the reproductive performance of postpartum dairy cows is influenced by both internal and external factors. One of the most important reproductive performance indices is the first ovulation postpartum. This review aimed to describe factors affecting first ovulation postpartum in dairy cows, particularly those raised under tropical climates. Negative energy balance and its consequences; metabolic disorders; uterine pathology; udder health; lameness; and heat stress are discussed for their potential effects on the first ovulation postpartum. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of those affecting factors would assist in justifying the treatment and prevention plans in order to optimize the reproductive performance of postpartum dairy cows.

    PMID:38292713 | PMC:PMC10824079 | DOI:10.5455/OVJ.2023.v13.i12.3

  • A study on the epidemiology of brucellosis in bovine population of peri-urban and rural areas of district Multan, southern Punjab, Pakistan

    BMC Vet Res. 2024 Jan 31;20(1):39. doi: 10.1186/s12917-024-03880-9.

    ABSTRACT

    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a bacterial pathogen belonging to the genus Brucella. It is one of the most frequent bacterial zoonoses globally but unfortunately, it is still considered as a neglected disease in the developing world. Keeping in view, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk determinants of brucellosis in large ruminants of peri-urban and rural areas of district Multan-Pakistan. For this purpose, blood samples (n = 490) were collected from the cattle (n = 245) and buffalo (n = 245) population of the study area and subjected to preliminary screening of brucellosis using local and imported RBPT reagents. All the samples were further analyzed using commercially available multi-specie indirect ELISA kit followed by their confirmation by PCR using genus and species-specific primers. Data obtained from lab analysis and questionnaires were subjected to statistical analysis for Pearson Chi-square, Odds Ratio and Confidence intervals (95%).

    RESULTS: The results showed that the maximum seropositivity was recorded with local RBPT reagent (VRI, Pakistan; 12.45%; 95%CI = 9.72-15.65%) followed by RBPT-IDEXX (12.24%; 95%CI = 9.52-15.45%) and RBPT-ID.vet (11.84%; 95%CI = 9.18-14.95%) however statistical difference was non-significant (P = 0.956). The ELISA results showed an overall seroprevalence rate of 11.22% (95%CI = 8.59-14.33%) with comparatively higher rate in cattle (12.65%; 95%CI = 8.82-17.44%) as compared to buffaloes (9.80%; 95%CI = 6.49-14.15%). The PCR analysis confirmed the presence of genus Brucella in all seropositive samples whereas frequency of B. abortus and B. melitensis in seropositive samples was 80% and 20%, respectively. The co-existence of both species was also observed in 5.45% samples. The statistical analysis showed a significant association of bovine brucellosis with herd size, breed, reproductive disorders, mode of insemination, educational status and farmers’ awareness about brucellosis (P < 0.05). Conversely, locality, age, weight, gender, pregnancy status, parity and puberty status had no associations with brucellosis (P > 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, brucellosis is prevalent in large ruminants of district Multan, Pakistan. It is suggested to devise and implement stringent policies for the effective control and prevention of brucellosis in the region. Further, the current situation also warrants the need to strengthen interdisciplinary coordination among veterinarians and physicians in one health perspective to ensure and strengthen the human and animal health care systems in the region.

    PMID:38297263 | PMC:PMC10832158 | DOI:10.1186/s12917-024-03880-9

  • Effects of limonin on oxidative stress and early apoptosis in oocytes during in vitro maturation

    Theriogenology. 2024 Apr 1;218:8-15. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2024.01.025. Epub 2024 Jan 24.

    ABSTRACT

    To investigate the effects of limonin (Lim) on oxidative stress and early apoptosis in bovine oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM), different concentrations of Lim (0, 10, 20, 50 μmol/L) were added to bovine IVM medium. Oocyte maturation rates and development 24 h after in vitro fertilization (IVF) were examined to determine the optimal Lim concentration. The optimal Lim concentration was added to the IVM medium, and 0 μmol/L Lim was used as the control. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the abnormal rate of spindle assembly, reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) levels, mitochondrial distribution, and the fluorescence intensity of cathepsin B (CB)-active LC3 protein. RT‒qPCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of antioxidant-, apoptosis- and autophagy-related genes in oocytes. The total number of blastocysts and the proportion of apoptotic cells among blastocysts were detected. The results showed that the PBI ejection rate, cleavage rate and blastocyst rate of bovine oocytes in the 20 μmol/L Lim group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with those in the control group, ROS levels, abnormal mitochondrial distribution, the proportion of abnormal spindle assembly, CB activity and LC3 protein fluorescence intensity of oocytes in the 20 μmol/L Lim group were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and GSH and MMP levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The expression of antioxidant genes (Prdx3, Prdx6, Sirt1) and antiapoptotic genes (Bcl-xl, Survivin) were significantly upregulated (P < 0.05), and the expression levels of proapoptotic genes (Caspase-4, BAX) and autophagy-related genes (LC3) were significantly downregulated (P < 0.05). The total number of cells among in vitro fertilized embryos was significantly increased (P < 0.05), and the apoptosis rate of blastocysts was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Here, we show that Lim exerts positive effects on bovine oocyte IVM by regulating REDOX homeostasis, reducing spindle damage and enhancing mitochondrial function during IVM, thereby inhibiting oocyte apoptosis and autophagy.

    PMID:38290232 | DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2024.01.025

  • Infectious sporadic bovine abortions: retrospective analysis

    Trop Anim Health Prod. 2024 Jan 30;56(2):63. doi: 10.1007/s11250-024-03892-5.

    ABSTRACT

    Infectious sporadic abortions in cattle are mainly caused by opportunistic bacteria and fungi usually present in environmental or gastrointestinal and reproductive microbiota of healthy animals. A retrospective analysis was carried out to evaluate the main opportunistic microorganisms involved in bovine abortions recorded at INTA Balcarce (Argentina) from 1997 to 2023, accounting for 2.2% of the total diagnosed etiologies of bovine abortion. The opportunistic agents identified as the cause of abortion in 29 fetuses were bacteria (90%) and fungi (10%). Escherichia coli (n = 8), Trueperella pyogenes (n = 5), and Histophilus somni (n = 4) were the bacterial species most often identified as causing infectious abortions, whereas Aspergillus spp. (n = 3) was implicated in all fungal abortions identified. Pure culture of bacteria or fungus was achieved from abomasal content and/or lung essential. Main microscopic findings were bronchopneumonia, myo- and epicarditis, meningitis, and portal hepatitis. Herein, we highlight the importance of detecting potential infectious bacteria in cultures to improve etiological diagnosis of bovine abortions associated with compatible microscopic findings to confirm the etiology.

    PMID:38291289 | DOI:10.1007/s11250-024-03892-5

  • Genetic evaluation of crossbred Bos indicus cow temperament at parturition

    J Anim Sci. 2024 Jan 3;102:skae022. doi: 10.1093/jas/skae022.

    ABSTRACT

    Cow temperament at parturition may be mostly a measure of aggressiveness. The heritability of cow temperament at parturition in Bos taurus cows has been reported to be low. The objectives of this study were to estimate the heritability of cow temperament at parturition, conduct a genome-wide association analysis of cow temperament at the time of parturition, and estimate the correspondence of cow temperament at the time of parturition with cow productive performance and early-life temperament traits in Bos indicus crossbreds. Cow temperament was assessed from 1 to 5 indicating increasing levels of aggressiveness of cows (937 cows and 4,337 parturitions) from 2005 to 2022. Estimates of heritability and repeatability were 0.12 ± 0.024 and 0.24 ± 0.018. The estimates of proportion of phenotypic variance were 0.13 ± 0.019 and 0.02 ± 0.011 for permanent and maternal permanent environmental components, respectively. Estimates of heritability for maximum lifetime temperament score and proportions of temperament scores >1 were 0.18 ± 0.07 and 0.13 ± 0.072. Within cycles (generations), 2-yr-old cows had lower temperament score means than cows in most other age categories. There were low to moderate positive estimates of unadjusted correlation coefficients (r = 0.22 to 0.29; P < 0.05) of unadjusted temperament score with temperament measured on the same females when they were 8 mo old. There were low to moderate positive estimates of correlation coefficients (r = 0.09 to 0.37; P < 0.05) of unadjusted temperament score with calving rate, weaning rate, weaning weight per cow exposed, and weaning weight per 454 kg cow weight at weaning. Cows with the lowest temperament score had lower (P < 0.05) calving and weaning rate than cows in other temperament categories. Within 3 of 5 cycles, cows with the lowest temperament score (totally docile) had lower (P < 0.05) weaning weight per cow exposed than cows in other temperament categories. There were 2 SNP on BTA 4 associated with maximum lifetime temperament score (FDR < 0.05). The non-genetic influence of a cow's mother was documented in her own temperament measured at the time of calving; this may be a consequence of learned behavior. Less aggressiveness displayed by cows at the time of calving may be accompanied by lower reproductive and maternal performance.

    PMID:38282422 | PMC:PMC10873775 | DOI:10.1093/jas/skae022

  • Milk recording data indicates the importance of fertility, including age at first calving, on the progression of first lactation cows to second lactation

    PLoS One. 2024 Jan 29;19(1):e0297657. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0297657. eCollection 2024.

    ABSTRACT

    Dairy farmers do not recoup the rearing costs incurred from birth to first calving until second lactation but varying proportions of first lactation cows are removed from the herd before second calving. Herein, we used milk recording data to examine the outcomes and performance of first lactation cows to gain insight into farmer decisions to keep or remove them from the herd. An InterHerd+ dataset derived from 500 milk recording dairy herds in UK was used to examine first lactation cows which calved in 2020. Of 29,128 first lactation cows that calved in 2020, 82.6% remained within the herd and re-calved, 4.9% conceived but exited the herd before re-calving, 6.0% were served but exited the herd after failing to conceive and 6.6% exited the herd without being served. The fertility data on these cows support the logical conclusion that farmers retain cows that are served and conceive sooner, possibly in order to keep within a broadly seasonal calving pattern. Cows which were served but not conceived had a median AFC 16-20 days greater than the median AFC for those that conceived. Farmers may also be retaining cows with relatively high milk yields and lower somatic cell counts, or these parameters may be an indicator of a range of attributes affecting the farmer’s decision. The data also suggest that farmers are rearing more replacements than required, because over one third of the cows removed in first lactation are never served, and 70% of these are sold within 120 days post-partum. These cows had a significantly older median age at first calving of 818 days, but their early removal without serving suggests there is an oversupply of replacements forcing farmers to dispose of these cows early in lactation. In order to develop a deeper understanding of herd turnover and replacement, future work could examine cow removals in lactation 2 onwards.

    PMID:38285711 | PMC:PMC10824451 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0297657

  • Efficacy of novel staphylococcal surface associated protein vaccines against Staphylococcus aureus and non-aureus staphylococcal mastitis in dairy cows

    Vaccine. 2024 Feb 27;42(6):1247-1258. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2024.01.067. Epub 2024 Jan 27.

    ABSTRACT

    Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland commonly caused by bacteria or fungi. Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterium that causes mastitis in dairy cows. Non-aureus staphylococci are also increasingly reported, with Staphylococcus chromogenes being the most common species. Current staphylococcal mastitis control programs are not fully effective, and treatment with antibiotics is not sustainable. Non-antibiotic sustainable control tools, such as effective vaccines, are critically needed. We previously developed S. aureus surface-associated proteins (SASP) and S. chromogenes surface-associated proteins (SCSP) vaccines that conferred partial protective effects. We hypothesized that vaccination with SASP or SCSP would reduce the incidence of S. aureus mastitis throughout the lactation period. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of SASP and SCSP vaccines against S. aureus and non-aureus staphylococcal mastitis under natural exposure over 300 days of lactation. Pregnant Holstein dairy cows (n = 45) were enrolled and assigned to receive SASP (n = 15) or SCSP (n = 16) vaccines or unvaccinated control (n = 14). Cows were vaccinated with 1.2 mg of SASP or SCSP with Emulsigen-D adjuvant. Control cows were injected with phosphate-buffered saline with Emulsigen-D adjuvant. Three vaccine injections were given subcutaneously at 60, 40, and 20 days before the expected calving. Booster vaccinations were given at 120 and 240 days in milk. Cows were monitored for mastitis at quarter and cow levels, staphylococcal mastitis incidence, changes in serum and milk anti-SASP and anti-SCSP antibody titers, bacterial counts in milk, adverse reactions, milk yield and milk somatic cells count over 300 days of lactation. The SCSP vaccine conferred a significant reduction in the incidence of staphylococcal mastitis. Milk and serum anti-SASP and anti-SCSP antibody titers were increased in the vaccinated cows compared to unvaccinated control cows. Anti-SASP and anti-SCSP antibody titers decreased at about 120 days in milk, indicating the duration of immunity of about four months. In conclusion, the SASP and SCSP vaccines conferred partial protection from natural infection.

    PMID:38281900 | DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2024.01.067

  • Effects of Rumen-Protected L-Tryptophan Supplementation on Productivity, Physiological Indicators, Blood Profiles, and Heat Shock Protein Gene Expression in Lactating Holstein Cows under Heat Stress Conditions

    Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Jan 19;25(2):1217. doi: 10.3390/ijms25021217.

    ABSTRACT

    In this study, we examined the effects of rumen-protected L-tryptophan supplementation on the productivity and physiological metabolic indicators in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions. The study involved eight early lactating Holstein cows (days in milk = 40 ± 9 days; milk yield 30 ± 1.5 kg/day; parity 1.09 ± 0.05, p < 0.05), four cows per experiment, with environmentally controlled chambers. In each experiment, two distinct heat stress conditions were created: a low-temperature and low-humidity (LTLH) condition at 25 °C with 35-50% humidity and a high-temperature and high-humidity (HTHH) condition at 31 °C with 80-95% humidity. During the adaptation phase, the cows were subjected to LTLH and HTHH conditions for 3 days. This was followed by a 4-day heat stress phase and then by a 7-day phase of heat stress, which were complemented by supplementation with rumen-protected L-tryptophan (ACT). The findings revealed that supplementation with ACT increased dry matter intake as well as milk yield and protein and decreased water intake, heart rate, and rectal temperature in the HTHH group (p < 0.05). For plateletcrit (PCT, p = 0.0600), the eosinophil percentage (EOS, p = 0.0880) showed a tendency to be lower, while the monocyte (MONO) and large unstained cells (LUC) amounts were increased in both groups (p < 0.05). Albumin and glucose levels were lower in the HTHH group (p < 0.05). The gene expressions of heat shock proteins 70 and 90 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were higher in the ACT group (HTHH, p < 0.05). These results suggest that ACT supplementation improved productivity, physiological indicators, blood characteristics, and gene expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of early lactating Holstein cows under heat-stress conditions. In particular, ACT supplementation objectively relieved stress in these animals, suggesting that L-tryptophan has potential as a viable solution for combating heat-stress-induced effects on the cattle in dairy farming.

    PMID:38279240 | PMC:PMC10816680 | DOI:10.3390/ijms25021217

  • Effects of recombinant osteopontin expressed in Escherichia coli on the recovery of the endometrial epidermal growth factor profile and fertility in repeat breeder dairy cows

    Theriogenology. 2024 Mar 15;217:159-168. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2024.01.011. Epub 2024 Jan 11.

    ABSTRACT

    Endometrial epidermal growth factor (EGF) shows a cyclic change with two peaks on days 2-4 and days 13-14 of the estrous cycle. In repeat breeder cows, loss of the peaks has been associated with reduced fertility. By infusing seminal plasma (SP) and osteopontin (OPN) derived from SP and milk into the vagina, their EGF profile and fertility are restored. However, SP is difficult to obtain, and both SP and OPN can transmit infectious diseases. While OPN can be sourced from recombinant protein without this risk, recombinant bovine OPN (rOPN) expressed in Escherichia coli should be examined for its effects on the EGF profile, since it does not undergo posttranslational modification, which is important for its biological activity. In study 1, PBS, SP (0.5 mL), and rOPN (0.3 mg) were infused into the vagina at estrus (day 0) in 74, 37, and 105 repeat breeder Holstein cows, respectively, with an altered EGF profile. The endometrial EGF concentrations were measured on day 3. Some cows (n = 58, 20, and 83, respectively) were inseminated immediately before the infusion and then diagnosed for pregnancy between days 30 and 35. The normalization rate of the EGF profile and conception rate in the rOPN group (58.1 % and 47.0 %, respectively) were not significantly different from those in the SP group (62.2 % and 45.0 %, respectively) but higher than those in PBS group (29.7 % and 28.1 %, respectively) (P < 0.05). In study 2, repeat breeder cows with an altered EGF profile were infused with PBS (n = 18) and rOPN (n = 17), while fertile controls with a normal EGF profile (n = 18) were infused with PBS. Two or three embryos were transferred into cows on day 7 and then recovered on day 14. Embryo recovery rates of the rOPN and fertile groups were comparable (58.7 % vs. 58.3 %) but higher than that of the PBS group (58.7 % vs. 32.0 %) (P < 0.05). The embryo recovery rate of cows with normalized EGF profile was higher than that of cows with unnormalized EGF profile (64.4 % vs. 16.7 %) (P < 0.05). The embryo sizes of cows in the rOPN and fertile groups were comparable but larger than those in the PBS group (P < 0.05). However, the embryo size was not correlated to the corresponding endometrial EGF concentrations. In conclusion, rOPN without posttranslational modifications normalized the EGF profile in repeat breeder cows. Improved fertility by normalization of the EGF profile could be attributed partly to the increased embryo viability up to day 14.

    PMID:38280277 | DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2024.01.011

  • Farmers´ sense of the biological impact of extreme heat and seasonality on Swedish high-yielding dairy cows – A mixed methods approach

    Prev Vet Med. 2024 Mar;224:106131. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2024.106131. Epub 2024 Jan 22.

    ABSTRACT

    Supporting dairy farmers in becoming resilient towards extreme weather requires a broad understanding of the experiences and perceived risks associated with these events from those who undergo them. We used a mixed methods approach to explore national trends of biological consequences on dairy cow udder health and fertility, combined with in-depth farmer conversations around extreme weather events, focusing on heat. The aim is to provide a comprehensive picture of how dairy farmer perceptions, priorities and decision-making are related to the season and extreme weather to identify preventive pathways that can reduce biological costs of heat stress on Swedish dairy cattle during summer. Data collected monthly at cow and farm level between 2016-2019 as part of the Swedish milk and disease recording system confirm seasonal trends and show increased somatic cell counts (SCC) and negatively impacted fertility during summers. In addition, transcriptions of 18 interviews with dairy farmers across the country and seasonal variations of SCC and fertility were thematically analysed. The results suggest that farmers have a broad definition of extreme weather and are aware of the negative impacts. Yet handling of extreme weather events can mainly be classified as reactive. Nevertheless, there are long-term effects on the farm economy, health and herd dynamics. Swedish dairy farmers are currently showing resilience, albeit a fragile one. The capability to ensure sufficient feed production in extreme weather is critical for farm self-perceived resilience. However, acknowledging the long-term biological costs related to fertility, currently not perceived by farmers, has the potential to support proactive planning and improve farm resilience and profitability.

    PMID:38277818 | DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2024.106131


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